The circulating water is sprayed onto the filler of fiberglass by spraying. The filler provides a larger contact surface, through the contact of water and air, to achieve the heat exchange effect. In addition, a fan drives the air circulation in the tower to bring out the hot air flow after heat exchange with water, so as to achieve cooling. Filling may consist of several, mainly vertical, wet surfaces depending on the propagation of water (filling) or lateral splash elements that create many layers of film (splash) with a large surface area cascaded by small water droplets.
Air is drawn through a cycle of cascaded water outside the entire heat pipe, providing a similar evaporative cooling tower opening. The heat flow in operation from the internal fluid circuit, through the coil tube wall, to the external circuit, then heated by some evaporation of air and water, into the atmosphere.
When the air in the countercurrent cooling tower passes through the filling or tube bundle, the opposite water moves downward. The water moves down as the cross flow cooling tower air moves horizontally through the fill.